Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Literature Review #3

Image result for the inheritors bourdieu


Bourdieu, Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron. The Inheritors: French Students and Their Relation to Culture . Chicago : The U of Chicago Press, 1979. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.

This work is centered around the analysis of cultural privilege and how those in different socioeconomic classes directly and indirectly benefit from the financial, cultural, and social capital. Economic advantage gives access to cultural benefits, which become heightened during higher education. 

Author, Pierre Bourdieu, was an influential sociologist, anthropologist, and philosopher from France. His main pursuit was to examine the dynamics of power relationships in a social context, including class stratification, aesthetic taste, and social positioning. He is well known for noting the importance of cultural capital for social mobility. Jean-Claude Passeron is also a French sociologist and philosopher. He led the sociology department at l'Universite de Nantes. 

A key term that this paper focuses on is freedom, which relates directly to Ilguana's idea of freedom, as well. In this context, freedom is defined in more literal terms compared to Ken's definition. There are direct quotes of students' opinion of freedom for leisure, however all the quotes are from senior executive's sons. A second term this paper focuses on is social origin. Social origin is the starting socioeconomic status in which the student originates, which dictates student trajectory towards higher education. 

 “A senior executive’s son is eighty times more likely to enter a university than a farm worker’s son, and forty times more likely than an industrial worker’s son; and he is twice as likely to enter a university even a lower-rank executive’s son” (2). 

"Educational disadvantage is also expressed in the restricted choice of disciplines reasonable available to a given category of students" (6). 

"However factious and superficial, these freedoms are not the conscious liberties by which the fresher persuades himself he has become a student" (30). 

My plan for this work is to utilize the given statistics comparing students' participation in higher education in relation to their level of social origin. The premise of the data depicts how social origin and the complementing amenities that accompany students of a higher social class are more prone to enter higher education. Bourdieu explains that social origin is not merely the objective status, but also the experiences, relations, and cognition it gives the student. For example, students with a higher social origin are primed for higher education because their whole lives are centered around the destiny for success. 

Monday, March 6, 2017

Literature Review #2: The Forms of Capital


Bourdieu, Pierre. "The Forms of Capital ." Ed. J. F. Richardson. New York: Greenwood Press, 1968. 46-58. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.

This reading depicts the significance of capital in a social context. He begins to explicate the multidimensional nature of social structure and its effects on the hidden implications of capital, specifically cultural capital. Bourdieu outlines the three types of capital in a socioeconomic structure: economic, cultural, and social capital. Economic capital is the immediate ownership of monetary property. He heavily focuses on the three states of cultural capital, which stem from the multidimensional composition of culture itself. Cultural capital can exist in an embodied state (inherited competence), an objectified state (cultural artifacts), and an institutionalized state (a guaranteed recognition of ability). He then explicates the concept of social capital, which is the network of social contacts derived from specific socioeconomic classes. He concludes by outlining the interdependence of these capitals: social and cultural capital are derived from economic capital. 

Author, Pierre Bourdieu, was an influential sociologist, anthropologist, and philosopher from France. His main pursuit was to examine the dynamics of power relationships in a social context, including class stratification, aesthetic taste, and social positioning. He is well known for noting the importance of cultural capital for social mobility. 

"The notion of cultural capital initially presented itself to me in the course of research, as a theoretical hypothesis which made it possible to explain the unequal scholastic achievement of children originating from the different social classes by relating socioeconmic success, i.e., the different classes and class fractions can obtain in the academic market, to the distribution of cultural capital between the classes and class fractions" (47). 

"If the internal competition for the monopoly of legitimate representation of the group is not to threaten the conservation and accumulation of the capital which is the basis of the group, the members of the group must regulate the conditions of access to the right to declare oneself a member of the group and, above all, to set oneself up as a representative of the whole group, thereby committing the social capital of the whole group" (53). 

"The different types of capital can be derived from economic capital, but only at the cost of a more or less great effort of transformation, which is needed to produce the type of power effective in the field in question" (53).

This work was extremely helpful in defining the central-focus of my thesis, which is differences in class resources. The resources students inherited from their parents are essentially forms of capital in financial, cultural, and social contexts. The idea of capital directly translates to the advantages students in higher socieconomic standing benefit from. Culture and social resources stem from the monetary economic capital, which is only the forefront of the benefits of higher socioeconomic class in the realm of higher education. 

Research Blog #5: Bibliography

Bibliography of Sources 

Armstrong, Elizabeth, and Laura Hamilton.  Paying for the Party: How College
Maintains Inequality.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2013. Print.
Bourdieu, Pierre. "The Forms of Capital ." Ed. J. F. Richardson. New York:
Greenwood Press, 1968. 46-58. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.
Bourdieu, Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron. The Inheritors: French
Students and Their Relation to Culture . Chicago : The U of Chicago Press, 1979. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.
Carlson, Scott.  “When College Was a Public Good.”  The Chronicle of Higher
Education 63.15 (December 2, 2016): A04.  Print and Web.
Dunne, Mairead, and Russell King. "Applying to higher education:
comparisons of independent and state schools." Studies in Higher Education. 39.9 (2014): 1649-667. Ebscohost. Web. 28 Feb. 2017.
Ilgunas, Ken.  Walden on Wheels.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2013.  Print.
Kettley, Nigel Charles, and Joan M. Whitehead. "Remapping the “landscape
of choice”: patterns of social class convergence in the psycho-social factors shaping the higher education choice process." Educational Review 64.4 (2012): 493-510. Ebscohost. Web. 28 Feb. 2017.
Mullen, Ann L. Degrees of Inequality: Culture, Class, and Gender in American Higher
Education. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins U Press, 2012. Print.
Newfield, Christpher.  “The Price of Privatization.”  The Great Mistake: How We
Wrecked Public Universities and How We Can Fix Them.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2016. 18-34.  Print.
Stephenson, Amber L., Alex Heckert, and David B. Yerger. "College choice and the
university brand: exploring the consumer decision framework." Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education Research 71 (2016): 1-15. Ebscohost. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.

Research Blog #4: Research Proposal

Working Title
How Parental Capital Defines the Student’s College Decision-Making Process

Topic
I will be addressing the college decision-making process between students of different socioeconomic classes. With the recent shift towards privatization of higher education, it has become evident that differences in parental class resources have a great effect on the college decision-making process. Students in lower socioeconomic standing evaluate and weigh the factors that make up this process under a stricter scope because their future success is highly dependent on making the right decision; in comparison, students in higher socioeconomic standing are not as constricted to these factors because of the sense of security that is accompanied with parental resources, including financial, cultural, and social capital.

Research Question
To what extent do the differences in parental class resources affect the consideration factors utilized in the college decision-making process by prospective students?

Theoretical Frame
The concept this research will center around is the affect of parental resources. Differences in these resources have a significant effect on the college decision-making process, which is comprised of five major factors. In Stephenson, Hecekert, and Yergers’ work “College choice and the University Brand: Exploring the Consumer Decision Framework” the authors detail the predominant factors utilized by perspective students; including location, price, type of institution, perception of relevant others, and availability of programs. While most prospective students utilize these factors, the affect of each factor’s weight is highly dependent on the socioeconomic classes of their parents. Each class has a definitive set of available parental resources, which can be categorized into financial, cultural, and social capital. As defined by Pierre Bourdieu, in “The Forms of Capital,” financial capital is the availability of monetary funding; cultural capital is the culturally embedded identity of a certain status; and social capital is the connectivity to alike others in a social circle. Parental resources provide a unique advantage in college access, admission, and performance; including parental outsourcing, social connections, cultural understanding, and educational aspirations. As a result, students with less capital are forced to evaluate the college decision-making under a constructing different context.

Case, Additional Questions, and Research Plan

In Alexander and Hamilton’s evaluation of Emma and Taylors’ contrasting class trajectories, the authors deduce how the seemingly minor differences in class resources put them on extremely different pathways. While Taylor was able to continue on her pursuit towards higher education, Emma’s lack of highly educated and well informed parents during her pre-collegiate career put her on a trajectory that ended in a low paying job, a return to home, and a large student loan bill. As a result of Taylor’s advantage in parentally sourced capital, her decision to further her education was not hindered by the lack of financial and cultural capital. Contrastingly, Emma had to consider the financial implications for her future if she were to proceed with higher education, so instead of following a similar path as Taylor, she resorted to working the low-paying job to cover the costs of her student loan bill. This case study is a textbook example of how differences in class resources disrupt the college decision-making process for students in a lower socioeconomic standing. In a study outlined in “Selecting the Elect,” by Pierre Bourdieu and Jean-Claude Passeron, results indicate “a senior executive’s son is eighty times more likely to enter a university than a farm worker’s son, and forty times more likely than an industrial worker’s son; and he is twice as likely to enter a university, even a lower-rank executive’s” (Bourdieu and Passeron, 2). The data acts to emphasize the pursuit of higher education and its dependency on the prospective student’s social origin, which stem from the everyday perceptions of social milieu. This definition of social origin can be translated to Bourdieu’s previously mentioned idea of social capital. The senior executive’s son is able to curate higher education as a commonplace trajectory because of his exposure to his father’s successful social circle. These relationships and the ideas that stem from them encompass a social capital that students in low socioeconomic standing cannot benefit from.

Working Bibliography
Armstrong, Elizabeth, and Laura Hamilton.  Paying for the Party: How College
Maintains Inequality.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2013. Print.
Bourdieu, Pierre. "The Forms of Capital ." Ed. J. F. Richardson. New York: Greenwood
            Press, 1968. 46-58. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.
Bourdieu, Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron. The Inheritors: French Students and
Their Relation to Culture . Chicago : The U of Chicago Press, 1979. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.
Carlson, Scott.  “When College Was a Public Good.”  The Chronicle of Higher
Education 63.15 (December 2, 2016): A04.  Print and Web.
Ilgunas, Ken.  Walden on Wheels.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2013.  Print.
Newfield, Christpher.  “The Price of Privatization.”  The Great Mistake: How We
Wrecked Public Universities and How We Can Fix Them.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2016. 18-34.  Print.
Stephenson, Amber L., Alex Heckert, and David B. Yerger. "College choice
            and the university brand: exploring the consumer decision
framework." Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher

Education Research 71 (2016): 1-15. Ebscohost. Web. 26 Feb. 2017.